Horvat Eleq – the Middle Bronze Age
Clay fragments from the Bronze Age were found in Horvat Eleq at Ramat Hanadiv. The Bronze Age is divided into four sub-periods: the Early Bronze, the , the Middle Bronze and the Late Bronze. During this period, humans used bronze, an alloy of copper and tin. Bronze is stronger than copper, allowing production of more effective tools and weapons. During this period, permanent settlements returned to the Land of Israel; they were refortified mainly towards the end of this period. It is believed that this significant change followed the invasion of the Land of Israel by foreign nations, and the rise of Ancient Egypt, during the 12th and 13th dynasties at the beginning of this period. As mentioned, few clay fragments were found from this period in Horvat Eleq; they included a Hyksos scarab seal, dated to the years 1550–1650 BCE (in the attached photo). A palm tree with ostriches on each side of it appears on the scarab. The Hyksos were a Semitic group that invaded Egypt in 1730 BCE; during their period of rule, Egypt flourished and was economically prosperous. The findings dated to this period from Horvat Eleq are scarce; remains from the Early Bronze Age may indicate a permanent settlement at this site, one whose remains are yet to be revealed by excavations, or may have been brought here from a nearby site.